Norovirus (and other waterborne viruses) can enter ocean habitat from sewage outflows or through waste discharged. Noroviruses are highly contagious. Good Aquaculturing Practice, Good Hygiene Practice, and Good manufacturing Practice are key to prevent foodborne virus outbreaks.
Definition of Seaweed
- A mass or growth of marine plants
- A plant growing in the sea, especially: a marine alga (as a kelp)
- brown algae
- red algae
- green algae
Norovirus outbreaks with seaweed
1/ In South Korea, seasoned green seaweed and norovirus
2/ In Japan, kizami nori and norovirus
Production of Japanese Nori.
Can Norovirus be deactivated in seaweed?
Adhesion of norovirus to vegetal surfaces
What should seaweed producers do?It is important that producers and processors, as well as importers and retailers of seaweed take into account the viral risk in their HACCP plan, and identify the various critical control points (CCP), where Norovirus could have been in contact with the sea vegetable. Processes should be evaluated to verify that they can inactivate norovirus, a major cause of food contamination worldwide. Good Agricultural Practice should be set into place to prevent any cross-contamination. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads)
Norovirus Detection Methods in SeaweedThe ISO 15216 Standard, an horizontal method for the detection of foodborne viruses in food matrices, covers several specific matrices, including vegetable in a form of a leaf. Norovirus GI and norovirus GII presence or absence can be evaluated using PCR real time detecion, after several steps including sample preparation and elution.
Learn more about Food- and Water-borne viruses