mercredi 20 avril 2016

Leafy greens and Foodborne viruses

There is now a long history of foodborne virus contamination of vegetables in the form of leaf, and through the RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed), that can be traced back to 2010.

Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus in Lettuce

No less than four alerts have been registered in the RASFF over a period of 6 years, not only for norovirus but also Hepatitis A Virus. Produces were originating from Germany, Hungary, France (2 times). Romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the varieties implicated.


Norovirus contaminates French lettuce

The latest RASFF alert concerns french lettuce delivered to Denmark and Norway, controled positive for Norovirus GII, and withdrawn from the market.

EFSA Scientific Opinion : Norovirus and Leafy Greens

As stated by EFSA in 2014, appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should be primary objectives of leafy green producers.

FCD : a foodborne virus initiative

In France, FCD (Federation of Commerce and Distribution) has implemented in 2015 in its recommendations for microbiological criteria control plans, norovirus and hepatitis A virus :


ISO/TS 15216 and Foodborne virus

A method exists for the detection, identification and quantification of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in salad vegetable, with standardized protocols for the elution of those viruses from leafy greens.

What are food-borne viruses?

  • HAV was first identified in 1973, and is a non-enveloped virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is highly contagious. HAV is  transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact orconsumption of contaminated food or water. For more information on Hepatitis A check the CDC website and WHO Website.
  • Noroviruses are highly contagious and 10-100 viral particles may be sufficient to infect an individual. They are transmitted primarily through the faecal-oral route, either by consumption of contaminated food or water, or by spreading directly from person to person. Vomiting creates aerosols with high content of virus particles, which enter the oral mucosa or contaminate surfaces. The virus survives a long time on different surfaces and thus, environment may serve as a source of new infections. For more information on norovirus check the ECDC website

dimanche 17 avril 2016

Chinese Raspberries contaminated with Norovirus

2006 - 2016 : 9 alerts in RASFF for products from China

https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=searchResultList

Germans, Danes, Dutchs, Lithuanians, Belgians and Swedes have posted no less than 9 alerts for Raspberries and Strawberries from
 China in 10 years.

A new 2016 RASFF Norovirus Alert on Fruits from China

https://twitter.com/ceeramTools/status/721947199173750784

"#Norovirus (genogroup II) in deep-frozen raspberries from China https://t.co/Fq9v19NFO3"


Find out more about the previous RASFF Alerts :

Norovirus in frozen strawberries from China

A new alert has been registered in the RASFF system for imported Chinese strawberries on Aug. 8th, 2014. This alert followed a regulation for the control of Strawberries imported from China, for Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus detection (1235-2012, Alinea 4)




Large norovirus outbreak in Germany in 2012

A large massive outbreak occurred in Germany in 2012 (http://ceeram.blogspot.fr/2012/10/chinese-frozen-strawberries-source-of_6.html), during which more than 11000 children were found sick after consumption of norovirus contaminated strawberries originating from China.


What are food-borne viruses?

  • HAV was first identified in 1973, and is a non-enveloped virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is highly contagious. HAV is  transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact orconsumption of contaminated food or water. For more information on Hepatitis A check the CDC website and WHO Website.
  • Noroviruses are highly contagious and 10-100 viral particles may be sufficient to infect an individual. They are transmitted primarily through the faecal-oral route, either by consumption of contaminated food or water, or by spreading directly from person to person. Vomiting creates aerosols with high content of virus particles, which enter the oral mucosa or contaminate surfaces. The virus survives a long time on different surfaces and thus, environment may serve as a source of new infections. For more information on norovirus check the ECDC website
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/major-cause-oubreaks-eu-viruses-franck-chatigny








dimanche 27 mars 2016

Foodborne Viruses - Diagnostic Tools for Food & Water

Solutions for the detection and identification of pathogenic food-borne enteric viruses and hepatitis A & E viruses.


https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/major-cause-oubreaks-eu-viruses-franck-chatignyNorovirus is responsible for most foodborne-disease outbreaks in the EU and in the US and the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Not only can food (or water) be contaminated by Norovirus, but also by several other pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis A virus, rotavirus. Ceeram has developed standardized real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) kits to allow molecular laboratories to perform such analysis and easily detect those foodborne viruses in Food and Water samples. Compliant to ISO/TS15216, our range of PCR tests (for norovirus and hepatitis A virus) are both qualitative and qantitative (Find out more)


puce_carre_gdReal Time RT-PCR detection and identification of pathogenic and non pathogenic food-borne viruses in Food Samples

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/should-you-test-hepatitis-e-virus-food-franck-chatigny 

Norovirus GI, Norovirus GII, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis E virus, Enterovirus, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Sapovirus, Aïchi virus, Adenovirus 40-41, Adenovirus consensus
 
=> Click to learn more about Hepatitis E Virus

puce_carre_gdReal Time RT-PCR detection and identification of pathogenic and non pathogenic water-borne viruses in Water Samples

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/why-norovirus-love-so-much-bivalve-shellfish-franck-chatigny


<= Click to learn more about virus in Water


puce_carre_gdReal Time RT-PCR Mengovirus process control for food- and water-borne viruses

  • Mengovirus Process Control
Résultat de recherche d'images pour "ceeramtools mengovirus"

puce_carre_gdMatrices to test :

  • Water (raw water, sewage water, drinking water, surface water, etc.)
  • Mud, Sludge
  • Shells, Shellfish
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Swabs
  • Surface and air samples
  • ...

mercredi 23 mars 2016

Foodborne Virus alerts in RASFF : an Update

In the past couple days, RASFF published two new informations for products contaminated with viruses in food (norovirus).

Noroviruses in French Oysters

As often published on this blog, oysters are a major source of contamination.

https://twitter.com/ceeramTools/status/712549426557034498

This is the eleventh RASFF alert on Molluscan shellfish this year. Overall oysters account for 46% of the foodstuff contaminated with norovirus.

Foodborne viruses and bivalve shellfish

Clams have also been implicated in alerts, with contamination by Hepatitis A Virus, and norovirus.


Pathogens and Foodstuff

Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs 
 
COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs :

(2) Foodstuffs should not contain micro-organisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities that present an unacceptable risk for human health.

(27) In particular, criteria for pathogenic viruses in live bivalve molluscs should be established when the analytical methods are developed sufficiently. There is a need for development of reliable methods for other microbial hazards too, e.g. Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Noroviruses in Bulgarian Raspberries

Fruits are the most second foodstuff implicated in outbreak, and rapsberries have been recently implicated with a contamination by Norovirus.
Products from Bulgaria has been implicated 10 times in alerts, essnetially for Hepatitis A Virus. This is the first time that norovirus, according to the RASFF, is detected in fruits from Bulgaria.
Italy, France and Norway have posted those alerts in the past years.

https://twitter.com/ceeramTools/status/712296394451718144

Foodborne virus and ISO Method

In 2014, 15% of the RASFF virus alerts implicated fruits. ISO Method is available for the pre-treatment of various matrices, including Fruits (stoneless edible fruits), such as raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, pomegranate seeds, currants.

  • ISO/TS 15216

    ISO/TS 15216-1:2013 describes a method for quantification of levels of :
    ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 describes a method for qualitative detection of :

    1. HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) and
    2. NoV ( Norovirus) genogroup I (GI) and II (GII) RNA,
from test samples of foodstuffs or food surfaces. Following liberation of viruses from the test sample, viral RNA is then extracted by lysis with guanidine thiocyanate and adsorption on silica. Target sequences within the viral RNA are amplified and detected by real-time RT-PCR.

Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus

  • HAV was first identified in 1973, and is a non-enveloped virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is highly contagious. HAV is  transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact orconsumption of contaminated food or water. For more information on Hepatitis A check the CDC website and WHO Website.
  • Noroviruses are highly contagious and 10-100 viral particles may be sufficient to infect an individual. They are transmitted primarily through the faecal-oral route, either by consumption of contaminated food or water, or by spreading directly from person to person. Vomiting creates aerosols with high content of virus particles, which enter the oral mucosa or contaminate surfaces. The virus survives a long time on different surfaces and thus, environment may serve as a source of new infections. For more information on norovirus check the ECDC website

Sources :
  1. RASFF
  2. CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HAV/index.htm
  3. WHO: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index2.html

samedi 5 mars 2016

Foodborne Virus in Clams : Five european alert in Two months

The first Virus RASFF Alert in March 2016 reminds us of the importance of
  1. controls of bivalve shellfish for foodborne viruses, especially norovirus and hepatitis A virus,
  2. the integration of this major risk in HACCP plans for importers, processors and producers.

Learn more

samedi 20 février 2016

Hepatitis A Virus in clams from Tunisia

www.twitter.com/ceeramtools

 

Tunisian Clams contaminated with Hepatitis A Virus

Italy recently alerted the EU through the RASFF (Feb. 18th) on a Hepatitis A Virus contamination of Tunisian clams. Clams have often be implicated in viral contamination as previously reported on this blog (http://ceeram.blogspot.fr/2015/07/rasff-foodborne-virus-annual-report-2014.html), especially in 2014 with vietnamese clams contaminated by norovirus.


4 Hepatitis A Virus alerts in 2 days

On February 19th, Italy posted 3 more alerts on clams imported from Tunisia. Destruction was the fate of those clams (Ruditapes decussatus)


Monitoring viruses (norovirus, hepatitis A Virus) in mollusks

In our May 13th, 2010 article (http://ceeram.blogspot.fr/2010/05/studies-suggest-benefits-of-monitoring.html) we were echoeing a study from CIDRAP, where the group concluded :
  • that growing evidence suggests that it is possible to gauge illness risk based on norovirus levels in oysters and that given the inadequacy of existing controls to prevent contamination, 
  • that setting an appropriate virus standard would yield public health benefits. 
  • that validated treatment processes can be used to produce a safe product, even when low levels of norovirus are detected in the treated oysters. 

 

Hepatitis A Virus and ISO/TS 15216

    http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=55382
  1. Microbiology of food and animal feed -- Horizontal method for determination of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food using real-time RT-PCR -- Part 1: Method for quantification
  2. Microbiology of food and animal feed -- Horizontal method for determination of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food using real-time RT-PCR -- Part 2: Method for qualitative detection


Hepatitis A Virus and bivalve shellfish

The mechanisms of bivalve shellfish contamination are well described in this linkedin Post where these shellfish are capable of concentrating viruses that may be present in water, resulting in viral concentrations far exceeding those of the surrounding water (Lees, 2000). 

The Global and Regional Burden of Foodborne Disease

WHO through the Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) published an interesting report with the major causes of foodborne illnesses, and the related pathogens. Hepatitis A Virus and foodborne virus in general are the number 1 cause.


Hepatitis A Virus

HAV was first identified in 1973, and is a non-enveloped virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is highly contagious. HAV is  transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact orconsumption of contaminated food or water. For more information on Hepatitis A check the CDC website and WHO Website.

lundi 15 février 2016

Norovirus in French Oysters

Two new alerts for norovirus in french oysters have been published in the RASFF [Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed]

Norovirus and Oysters, a love story

As recently published in a linkedin Post, norovirus are often found in bivalve shellfish as they specifically bind to digestive ducts. 

Conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue (Le Guyader, 2006).

Four Norovirus alerts in the RASFF

 

RASFF Food-Borne Virus Alerts

This is the fourth Norovirus alert in the RASFF this year, with 75% of bivalve shellfish implicated, from French, Dutch and Irish origins.


http://ceeram.blogspot.fr/Register to get monthly Food-Borne Virus Alerts from the RASFF by entering your email here.



 

Norovirus, highly contagious

Noroviruses are highly contagious and 10-100 viral particles may be sufficient to infect an individual. They are transmitted primarily through the faecal-oral route, either by consumption of contaminated food or water, or by spreading directly from person to person. Vomiting creates aerosols with high content of virus particles, which enter the oral mucosa or contaminate surfaces. The virus survives a long time on different surfaces and thus, environment may serve as a source of new infections. For more information on norovirus check the ECDC website.