vendredi 21 juillet 2017

Foodborne Virus Recalls @ what cost?

Foodborne Virus Recalls @ what cost?
Worldwide, about 1 out of every 5 cases of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea & vomiting illness) is caused by norovirus. Globally, norovirus is estimated to be the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis, indicates the CDC

Cost of Foodborne Illnesses
1.             Household Costs (Mortality, Medical care, Work loss, Pain and suffering, Caregiver)
2.             Food Industry Costs (Product recalls, Plant closing/cleanup, Product liability, Reputation costs, Administrative Costs, Costs from regulation)
3.             Public Health Sector (Disease surveillance, Outbreak response, Regulation, Consumer Information)
Number of food recalls and their costs to business & society are rising
Globally, the SwissRe report finds that demographic change is also exposing more sensitive consumer groups to the dangers of contaminated food. Ageing societies, an increase in allergies in the overall population and the fact that malnourishment as a source of weak body defences is still prevalent in many countries are significant drives for the increase in exposure. As an example, the number of recalls coordinated byFSANZ each year between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016 averages 61 per annum, increasing slightly since 2014.
Underestimated time, effort and expense
Companies without a recall believe that the cost recovery process was a quick one and that they could recover most of their losses, indicates a report from GMA. Even companies with recall experience underestimated the time, effort and expense associated with the recovery efforts. Factors that point to more frequent and more comprehensive recalls in the future include: 
·                     Just-in-time global manufacturing
·                     Fewer suppliers and complex supply chains
·                     Improved product traceability and detection of food-borne illness
·                     Increasing regulatory authority and enforcement
Norovirus, $64 BILLION a YEAR
According to a study published in PLOS One in April 2016 norovirus cost globally $64 billion yearly in direct health system costs and societal.
Fruit Distributor and Processors
·                     Norovirus Recall : AUD 14 M
·                     Hepatitis A Virus Recall : USD 7.5 M
Oyster Producers : US$ 28 M cleaning
The discovery of the norovirus at Hammersley Inlet resulted in a recall of shellfish in April 2017. State officials said the norovirus could have gotten into the water as a result of failing septic systems, malfunctioning wastewater treatment plants, boat discharges or directly from an infected person, indicates the News Tribune
·                     Norovirus : 3-years of earning
Chipotle Mexican Grill Inc.’s food safety crisis cost the company three full years of earnings growth, according to J.P. Morgan analysts & Marketwatch. The July 2017 norovirus incident showed their stocks tumble.
·                     Hepatitis A Virus : US$25,000 to US$75,000
Four families with members became ill with hepatitis A Virus after eating at the restaurant; their claims resolved for high amounts.
Foodborne Pathogens Jury Verdicts 1979-2004
The success rate among plaintiffs that alleged illness from a specific pathogen was 44.8. By contrast, plaintiffs that did not implicate a specific pathogen were successful in only 27.1% of cases. The expected award when a specific pathogen was identified was also significantly higher (US$ 432,000 mean award) than in cases where the pathogen was unspecified. 
Over the period 23 Hepatitis Virus (A, B, C) = 4.49% [Rank 3rd] of the total & 4 norovirus = 0.78% of the total court awards were registered. With the increasing technology capacity, investigators will have more chance to determine the precise pathogens.
NOVI Product Recall Cost Estimator
A web-based service to estimate the cost of a recall incident
Anticipate to better prevent
"Companies must proactively implement supplier verification programs, preventative food processing control plans and environmental monitoring systems" says Seth Keller
For foodborne viruses specifically, an ISO 15216 Standard is now available (Publication March 2017) to ease the detection and identification of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in food matrices (stoneless edible fruit, bivalve molluscs, bottled water, leafy greens, stems and bulbs, food surfaces).
Complete workflow for foodborne virus detection
Complete integrated solutions are available for industries and contract laboratories to implement and hence ensure a consistent, reliable monitoring and identification of foodborne viruses in food matrices from various origin.
A 2014 EFSA report, following a large EU hepatitis A Virus outbreak with edible stoneless fruits indicated : "Based on the findings of the investigation that HAV contamination could be occurring at the freezing processor or in primary production of berries, compliance with Good Hygiene Practice (GHP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) is recommended for countries producing berries for freezing."
Emerging risks such as foodborne viruses have to be taken into account by food businesses to minimize and prevent the risks. Upstream actions with producers and processors (GAP, GHP, GMP) should be implemented. Integrated in their HACCP plan, foodborne virus risk can be better managed and controled to protect the consumers, and anticipate financial loss.

Sources :

1.             GMA ONLINE
3.             PLOS One
4.             MARKETWATCH
5.             CDC
6.             SWISS RE
7.             News Australia
8.             Natlaw Review
9.             AIG
10.          Food Safety MxNs
11.          ISO
12.          bioMérieux Industry
13.          EFSA

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