lundi 5 novembre 2012

The Cost of Gastroenteritis Worldwide

Gastroenteritis Cost in AUSTRALIA

  • 5.4 million Australians contract food poisoning each year and most cases can be prevented.
  • On average: in 120 deaths, 1.2 million visits to doctors, 300,000 prescriptions for antibiotics, and 2.1 million days of lost work.
  • Estimated annual cost of food poisoning in Australia is $1.25 billion. 
  • NSW and the public health system bear roughly one-third of these costs.

Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss in the UNITED SATES

  • Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss in the United States caused by 14 of the 31 major foodborne pathogens reported on by Scallan et al. (Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:7-15, 2011), based on their incidence estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. 
  • 14 pathogens account for 95 % of illnesses and hospitalizations and 98 % of deaths due to identifiable pathogens estimated by Scallan et al. 
  • 14 pathogens cause $14.0 billion (ranging from $4.4 billion to $33.0 billion) in cost of illness and a loss of 61,000 QALYs (ranging from 19,000 to 145,000 QALYs) per year. 
  • Roughly 90 % of this loss is caused by five pathogens: nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica ($3.3 billion; 17,000 QALYs),Campylobacter spp. ($1.7 billion; 13,300 QALYs), Listeria monocytogenes ($2.6 billion; 9,400 QALYs), Toxoplasma gondii ($3 billion; 11,000 QALYs), and norovirus ($2 billion; 5,000 QALYs).

Food Poisoning burden in ALGERIA
  • Only in the first semester of 2010, no less than 1337 of food poisoning have been registered.
  • 54% of these food poisoning cases occured in universities and school

Food Poisoning burden in GERMANY

Cost of Gastroenteritis in IRELAND

  • The overall cost of gastroenteritis for the island of Ireland is conservatively estimated at approx. €135 million (£90 million). 
  • This is the potential saving to the economy if measures were successful in preventing all gastroenteritis, and provides the benchmark against which potential preventive measures can be assessed.

Cost of Gastroenteritis in the CARRIBEAN

  • 8 countries study and the economic impact that we have seen is far greater than what we expected, 
  • Grenada where the population was about 60,000 we found that the economic impact range in the millions. 
  • Guyana, another small country where the population was very small, the economic impact were going in 40s-50s of millions. 
  • The cost is actually greater the country."

Cost of gastroenteritis in FRANCE

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Cost of gastroenteritis in HOLLAND

  • In 1999, the costs of gastroenteritis in the Netherlands were estimated using data on hospitalizations from national registries, together with data on etiology and self-reported data on health care resource use in a community-based study. 
  • The overall costs of gastroenteritis were calculated taking direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect non-medical costs into account. 
  • The costs for severe gastroenteritis in 2009 were estimated at €2,203 per hospitalized child and €6,834 per hospitalized adult. 
  • The overall costs of gastroenteritis in 2009 were estimated at €611-695 million, which is €133-151 per gastroenteritis case or €37-42 per inhabitant. 
  • The total health care costs for gastroenteritis were about 50% higher in 2009 compared to 1999, which is mostly due to the rise in health care costs. 
  • The costs per gastroenteritis episode in adults are higher compared to children, mainly due to differences in the reasons for hospitalization and course of disease, and productivity losses.

Cost of Gastroenteritis in the UNITED KINGDOM

  • Rotavirus infections are the main cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children and it is expected that by the age of 5 years
  • Forty-eight percent of our sample was found to have rotavirus acute gastroenteritis; and the average total cost of a child presenting with rotavirus gastroenteritis ranged between £59 and £143 per episode, depending on the perspective. 
  • Given the prevalence and severity of the disease, the estimated burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis to society is £11.5 million per year.

Cost of Gastroenteritis in BRAZIL

  • A rotavirus vaccination programme in Brazil would prevent an estimated 1,804 deaths associated with gastroenteritis due to rotavirus, 91,127 hospitalizations, and 550,198 outpatient visits. 
  • Vaccination is likely to reduce 76% of the overall healthcare burden of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Brazil. 
  • At a vaccine price of US$ 7-8 per dose, the cost-effectiveness ratio would be US$ 643 per DALY averted. 
  • Rotavirus vaccination can reduce the burden of gastroenteritis due to rotavirus at a reasonable cost-effectiveness ratio.

Cost of gastroenteritis in ITALY

Food-borne disease outbreaks notifications

  • The mean national notification rates of food-borne disease outbreaks significantly decreased from 1.5 per 100,000 population in 1996 to 0.4 per 100,000 population in 2009 (–73%). No statistically significant trends were detected in Lombardy (–50%, from 2.2 per 100,000 population in 1996 to 1.1 per 100,000 popula- tion in 2009), where notification rates were below the national mean from 2000 to 2006. 
  • From 1996 to 2009, there was no statistically significant trend in Piedmont, although the notification rate decreased from 2.3 per 100,000 population in 1996 to 0.2 per 100,000 popu- lation in 2009 (–91%). As shown in Figure 3, notifica- tion rates were above the national mean from 2003 to 2006, and then again in 2008, but were below the national mean in 2007 and 2009

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