Australia : Frozen berries and hepatitis A virusFrozen berries are often implicated in foodborne contamination by hepatitis A virus, and the recent ongoing outbreak in Australia (http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/queenslanders-warned-nannas-frozen-berries-linked-to-hepatitis-a-outbreak-20150214-13ev2j.html) adds up to a long list of food-borne outbreaks implicating HAV virus.
Europe : Frozen berries and HAV virusThe latest confirmed outbreak occurred in Europe :
OUTBREAK OF HEPATITIS A INFECTION ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONSUMPTION OF FROZEN BERRIES, IRELAND, 2013 - LINKED TO AN INTERNATIONAL OUTBREAK
Just for 2014, the RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) published 5 alerts for hepatitis A virus : http://www.ceeram.com/images/stories/site_ANG/rasff2014.jpg
Hepatitis A Virus and frozen berries : a long-time known riskSpecific frozen berries were implicated in several other HAV world outbreaks including :
- frozen strawberries in Nordic countries in 2013, in the US in 1997 and 1992,
- frozen raspberries in Scotland in 1987 and 1983,
- pomegranate seeds in the US in 2013 and Canada in 2012,
- fresh berries (blueberries) in New Zealand in 2003.
Hepatitis A virus : GAP, GMP, GHP and HACPPGood Agricultural Practice, Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Hygiene Practice and HACPP plans are paramount to control food-borne viruses in food.
Food may be contaminated by virus during all stages of the food supply chain, and transmission can occur by consumption of food contaminated during the production process (primary production, or during further processing), or contaminated by infected food handlers. Viruses do not multiply in foods, but may persist for extended periods of time as infectious particles in the environment, or in foods. (http://www.efsa.europa.eu/fr/efsajournal/pub/2190.htm)