- Pathogens persist on environmental surfaces
Kramer, et al. (2006) summarize data on the persistence of different nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces. The researchers found that most Gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp. (including VRE), Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), or Streptococcus pyogenes, survive for months on dry surfaces, while many Gram-negative species, such as Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, or Shigella spp., can also survive for months. Most viruses from the respiratory tract, such as corona, coxsackie, influenza, SARS or rhinovirus, can persist on surfaces for a few days; viruses from the gastrointestinal tract, such as astrovirus, HAV, poliovirus or rotavirus, persist for approximately two months; and bloodborne viruses, such as HBV or HIV, can persist for more than one week. Their review emphasizes that the most common nosocomial pathogens may be a continuous source of transmission if no regular preventive surface disinfection is performed.
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